• A service quality model developed by a group of American authors, 'Parsu' Parasuraman, Valarie Zeithaml and Len Berry in 1985.
  • 5 factors of service quality are Reliability, Assurance, Tangibles, Empathy and Responsiveness creaating an acronym RATER.
  • 5 gaps were identified by SERVQUAL authors that may cause customers to experience poor service quality.
  • GAP 1: between customer expectations and management perceptions.
  • GAP 2: between management perception and quality specification.
  • GAP 3: between service quality specification and service delivery.
  • GAP 4: between service delivery and external communication.
  • GAP 5: between expected service and experienced service.
  • Determinants influencing gaps are Competence, Courtesy, Credibility, Security, Access, Communication, Know the customer, Tangibles, Reliability, Responsiveness.
  • Nyeck, Morales, Ladhari and Pons (2002) stated that SERVQUAL tool appears to remain most complete attempt to conceptualize and measure service quality.
  • It is used in services industries such as healthcare, banking, financial services and education.

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